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CAS 50-41-9 Description:
Clomid is the commonly referenced brand name for the drug clomiphene citrate.
To be more specific Clomid is chemically a synthetic estrogen with both agonist/antagonist properties, and is very similar in structure and action to Nolvadex.This of course can help to induce ovulation. In certain target tissues it can block the ability of estrogen to bind with its corresponding receptor. Its clinical use is therefore to oppose the negative feedback of estrogens on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, which enhances the release of LH and FSH.
It is not an anabolic steroid, but a prescription drug generally prescribed to women as a fertility aid. This is due to the fact that clomiphene citrate shows a pronounced ability to stimulate ovulation. This is accomplished by blocking/minimizing the effects of estrogen in the body.
Can clomiphene be used in combination to improve efficacy?
In women who do not respond to standard clomiphene citrate regimens, combination regimens have been proposed. Clomiphene citrate has been used in combination with insulin-sensitizing agents (eg, metformin), glucocorticoids, exogenous gonadotropins, and IUI.
Bypassing the cervix, IUI combined with clomiphene citrate is thought to increase pregnancy rates in women with unexplained infertility and surgically corrected endometriosis, perhaps by correcting undetected defects in ovulatory or sperm transport mechanisms and increasing the density of motile sperm available to released eggs.40 The routine use of IUI to improve pregnancy rates in women receiving clomiphene citrate has not been completely studied.
However, investigations by Dickey et al34 suggest that the use of IUI may improve per-cycle pregnancy rates in patients even when semen parameters are normal. Although no studies directly compare clomiphene citrate alone with clomiphene citrate and IUI, combined retrospective analysis of studies by Guzick et al33 estimates a 5.6% cycle fecundity with clomiphene citrate alone compared to 8.3% when combined with IUI.
Clomiphene citrate combined with glucocorticoids has been shown to induce ovulation in women who fail clomiphene citrate alone. In a RCT by Parsanezhad et al, women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS and normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels had a significantly higher rate of ovulation when dexamethasone was added, compared with the clomiphene-citrate plus placebo group (75% vs 15%, P<.001).
Toremifene citrate is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which helps oppose the actions of estrogen in the body. Licensed in the United States under the brand name Fareston, toremifene citrate is FDA-approved for use in advanced (metastatic) breast cancer.
As a layman explanation, Toremifene pretends to be a ‘fake’ Estrogen that occupies Estrogen receptors within breast tissue. With these receptors occupied by Toremifene, real Estrogen cannot perform their jobs there.
It has already been covered that Toremifene is a SERM, and serves to block Estrogen at various receptor sites in certain tissues within the body (breast tissue in particular). Toremifene does not reduce total blood plasma levels of Estrogen.
This means that whileToremifene will act as an anti-estrogen in breast tissue and the hypothalamus, it will act as an Estrogen within the liver. This can have beneficial impacts especially during an anabolic steroid cycle, such as improving and shifting cholesterol levels into a more favorable range.
Toremifene is also agonistic to Estrogen receptors in other tissues in the body (within the liver in particular).
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